Hysteresis loss and eddy current loss are the components of the iron losses. For the applied fl ux density Bmax to the core, we have
Hysteresis loss = Af
and Eddy current loss = Bf2
The no load loss can be expressed as
where A and B are constants.
Figure 1.38 shows the graph, which is a straight line when and f are plotted along the y-axis and x-axis, respectively. The intercept on the y-axis gives the value of A, whereas the slope of the line gives the value of B. Now the hysteresis and eddy current loss can be determined at any desired frequency.
The experimental circuit arrangement for determining and f is shown in Figure 1.39.
In Figure 1.39, a variable frequency alternator supplies to the transformer under the test, which is driven by DC shunt motor whose speed can be varied over a wide range. The switches S1 and S2 are opened and the alternator is started with the help of the DC shunt motor. The speed is adjusted to the
value of the required frequency. The excitation of the field coil (X-XX) is varied until the voltmeter on the secondary side of the transformer achieves the rated value. If E2 is the transformer emf on the secondary, we have
For constant , the flux density in the transformer remains constant. To achieve this, the frequency of the alternator emf is varied so that remains constant. The necessary f can be adjusted to vary E2 so that is kept constant. For different values of frequencies above and below the rated value, the reading of wattmeter (W) is noted. The graph and f is drawn to get the constants A and B. After getting the value of A and B, the hysteresis loss and eddy current loss is obtained.