D.C. Compound Generators In Parallel
Consider two compound generators 1 and 2 running in parallel as shown in the Fig. 1.
As the voltage characteristics for the usual compound generators are rising, their parallel operation is unstable in the absence of corrective devices.
Let us consider that each generator is taking proper share of load. If for some reason, the generator 1 takes increased load slightly then the current passing through its series field winding increases strengthening its field to increase the generated e.m.f. This causes generator 1 to take still more load. If system load is assumed to be constant then the load on generator 2 will decrease weakening its series field due to less current passing through its field winding which results in further decrease in its load. This effect is cumulative which leads generator 1 to take the entire load and generator 2 will be driven as motor. The circuit breakers of at least one of the two generators will open to stop the parallel operation. The under compound generators show stable operation like shunt generators.
For stable parallel operation of over and level compound generators, equalizer bus bars are used. It is connected to the armature ends of the series coils of the generators. The equalizer bus bar is also a conductor which is not required is case of under compound generator as their characteristics are not rising.
Now consider that the same two compound generators are operating in parallel with equalizer bar between them. If for any reason, generator 1 starts taking more load than its proper share the its series field current is increased. But now this increased field current will partly pass through series field winding of generator 1 and partly through series field winding of generator 2 via equalizer bar. Thus the two generators are affected in similar way preventing generator 1 from taking extra load. To have proper division of load from no load to full load it is required that the regulation of each generator must be same. The series field resistances should be inversely proportional to the generator ratings.