There is a specific procedure of connecting synchronous machine to infinite bus bars. Infinite bus bar is one which keeps constant voltage and frequency although load varies. The Fig. 1 shows a synchronous machine which is to be connected to the bus bars with the help of switch K.
If the synchronous machine is running as a generator then its phase sequence should be some as that of bus bars. The machine speed and field current is adjusted in such a way so as to have the machine voltage same as that of bus bar voltage. The machine frequency should be nearly equal to bus bar frequency so that the machine speed is nearer to synchronous speed.
When the above conditions are satisfied, the instant of switching for synchronization should be determined. This can be determined by lamps dark method, Lamps bright and dark method or by using synchroscope.
Once switch K is closed, the stator and rotor fields of the machine lock into each other and the machine then runs at synchronous speed. The real power exchange with the mains will be now governed by the loading conditions on the shaft while the reactive power exchange will be determined by field excitation.
The same procedure is to be followed for synchronizing the synchronous motor to the infinite bus bars. The motor is run by an auxiliary device such as small dc or induction motor initially and then synchronized to the bus bars.
As we know that the synchronous motors are not self starting hence if switch K is closed when rotor is stationary, the average torque will be zero as the two fields run at synchronous speed relative to each other so the motor fails to start. They are made self starting by providing short circuited bars on the rotor which produce torque as produced in case of induction motors.